Thursday, November 01, 2007

Macedonism, a ultra-Nationalilst ideology that spread from FYROM Worldwide

The known dispute is going on between Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) on the name “Macedonia,” which FYROM is using since 1991 when it broke away from the crumbling state of Yugoslavia.

The dispute goes deeper than the use of the name.

It is an attempt by FYROM to discredit the ancient Macedonians’ ethnicity, break the connection between present-day Greek Macedonians and the Macedonians of antiquity, and establish a connection between FYROM’s Slavs with ancient Macedonia.The historically,linguistically and archaeologically incorrect challenge is that Macedonia was never part of Greece and the Macedonians were barbarians who spoke a language in comprehensible to theother Greeks.

Cause of this ultra-nationalist behaviour is a ideology that flourish and in FYROM borders and grow dynamically in diaspora Slavmacedonians.

This ideology call as Macedonism.

Macedonism is a political term used to refer to a set of ideas regarded as characteristic of ethnic Slavonic Macedonian nationalism. The term is mostly used in a poltical and cultural sense by opponents of such views, mainly by Bulgarian and recently sometimes from Greek authors (Sfetas, Aggelopoulou) where it has strong negative connotations. It is occasionally also used in international scholarship ( John D. Bell) and in a positive sense by Slavonic Macedonian authors themselves like Alexandar Donski.


The roots of the concept were first developed in the late 19th century, in the context of Greek, Bulgarian and Serbian initiatives to take control over the region of Macedonia, which was then ruled by the Ottoman Empire. It was used to refer to the idea that Macedonians constituted a distinct ethnicity, separate from Bulgarians. The first to coin the term Macedonists in this sense was the Bulgarian author Petko Rachev Slaveykov, who used it to criticise such a view in an article The Macedonian Question published on 18th January 1871 in the newspaper Makedoniya in Constantinople. Also an early recorded use of the exact term Macedonism is in a report by the Serbian politician Stojan Novakoviζ from 1887. He proposed to employ the Macedonist idea as an ally of Serbian as opposed to Bulgarian influence in Macedonia


Among the beliefs and opinions that are often perceived as typical of Slavmacedonian nationalism and are criticised as parts of “Macedonism” by those who use that term are the following:
  • The idea that there is a fundamental, ancient ethnic distinction between Slavmacedonians and Bulgarians, going much further back than the political divisions between the two nations during the 20th century
  • The belief that this distinction is related to the inheritance of ethnic elements of the ancient non-Slavic tribe of the Bulgars, supposed to form an essential part of modern Bulgarian but not Macedonian heritage
  • The idea that there is ethnic continuity between the Slavmacedonians and the Ancient Macedonians, the inhabitants of the kingdom of Macedon under Alexander the Great
  • Irridentist political views about the neighbouring regions of Greek Macedonia (”Aegean Macedonia”) and parts of southwest Bulgaria (”Pirin Macedonia”) and about Slavmacedonian minorities living in these areas, connected to the political idea of a United Macedonia.

Other, related areas of Slavmacedonian-Bulgarian national polemics relate to:

The presence of the Bulgars in Medieval Macedonia and their connection with today Slavmacedonians

  • The ethnic character of various medieval historical figures and entities, including the saints Cyril and Methodius, the medieval Tsar Samuil and his kingdom, and the medieval Archbishopric of Ohrid
  • The historical role of the Bulgarian Exarchate and the ethnic character of Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization
  • The historical role of various Macedonian (Greeks, Bulgarian) insurgent movements during the Ottoman rule ( Ilinden Uprising) and during the Bulgarian occupation of Geographical Macedonia in World War II (National Liberation War of Macedonia).
  • The opinion that a separate “Macedonian” nationhood was an artificial product of Yugoslav propaganda during the 20th century and the belief of some Bulgarians that Macedonians should naturally form part of the Bulgarian nation.

On the other hand, areas of Slavmacedonian-Greek national polemics relate to:

The origin of the ancient Macedonians and ancient Macedonian language and their relation to the today Slavonic -and close to the Bulgarian - "Macedonian" and Greek nations and languages.

  • The Greeks have Sub-saharan origin ( The Arnaiz-Villena controversy)
  • Greeks discover Macedonia as a name in 1988(FYROM Minister Milososki in Mega Channel,1 Nov 2007)


With these perspectives in mind, the insistence of FYROM Slavs to be called “Macedonians,” a name dictatorially established and supported by communism’s brutal force and in the present from the US administration, clashes now with the age-old freedom of Hellenic Macedonians to be called “Macedonians.”

If FYROM considers itself Macedonia, a false and audaciously daring step that brings the origin of its Slavic inhabitants close to Philip and Alexander the GreaT then the insistence of these people tobe called “Macedonians” clashes head on with the age-old freedom of others to be called “Macedonians.”

FYROM has the right to survive and prosper, but it does not have the right to acquire, by international recognition, an advantage enjoyed by no otherstate in the world:

…to use a name which of itself propagandizes territorial aspirations at Greece’s expense !!!


  2. Macedonisn in FYROM
  3. The Ethnic and Historical origins of F.Y.R.O.M
  4. How to Construct a Nationality
  5. Historical revisionism / negationism in the Balkans


  1. Macedonia versus Greece, the Real Struggle Behind the Name Dispute
    February 2002
    By Risto Stefov
    I am writing this document to inform the unaware reader and to remind the weary Macedonian reader why it is important for Macedonians to fight, by any means possible, to survive. I hope to inspire others like myself, to spark debates and join me in telling our story. I invite historians and academics to revisit recorded history and re-open the Macedonian question.
    Since her inception as a country in the 1820’s, Modern Greece has instituted and to this day is enforcing discriminatory policies towards the Macedonian people. The name dispute is nothing new but part of century old, ongoing Greek interference in Macedonian affairs.
    In this document I intend to explore the results of policies instituted by Greek Governments and the harm they have done to the Macedonian people. I intend to show that for the sole benefit of her selfish needs, and to cover up acts of ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide against the Macedonian people, Greece has consistently denied the existence of a Macedonian nationality.
    I intend to show that since Greece became a country in the 1820’s, Greek Governments have systematically and deliberately promoted discriminatory actions and policies to suppress the identity of the Macedonian nation. I intend to provide evidence resulting from the implementation of such actions and policies. I also intend to show how, by passing carefully worded laws, Greek Governments have isolated Macedonians and robbed them of their rights and privileges as Greek citizens.
    I also intend to show how Greece has highjacked Classical and Hellenistic history to aid in her quest for annexing Macedonian territory and denying Macedonians their heritage.
    Finally, I intend to challenge the most popular club and donut shop debated Greek claims of the origin of Modern Macedonians, Modern Greeks and the purity of the Modern Greek nation.
    As George Orwell once pointed out, "Who controls the past controls the future; who controls the present controls the past." If you believe George Orwell as I do or the saying that “history is written by the victors”, then continue reading.
    I would like to begin this document with a few personal observations of my own that measure, unscientifically, today’s mood and political opinions of ordinary Macedonians and Greeks. As an added bonus, I would like to provide some measure of the general public’s level of awareness and understanding of issues facing Macedonia today.
    Over some time, I informally inquired from several ordinary people that identify with Modern Greeks, what they think of Macedonians?
    The results are summarized as follows:
    1. “Macedonians don’t exist.”
    2. “There is no such thing as Macedonians.”
    3. “Macedonians have been extinct for a long time.”
    4. “There a region called Macedonia but it belongs to Greece.”
    The similarity of answers provided by various individuals is most curious.
    I did the same with people that identify with Macedonians. The question this time was what do Macedonians think of the Greeks?
    In almost every instance I witnessed signs of frustration, anger and disappointment before a single word was uttered.
    1. Some shook their heads and walked away saying “there is nothing good to say.”
    2. Others wished the Greeks would “leave us alone so that we can get on with our lives.”
    3. Some spoke of the “Greek injustices” perpetrated over the years.
    I did a similar test with several more people who were not of Greek or Macedonian nationality. I asked the question, “What do you know about Greeks and Macedonians and the issues that face them today?”
    Here is a summary of the results;
    1. One Italian person responded by saying, “Greeks, Macedonians, same thing”.
    2. Most knew nothing of Macedonians and a little of the Greeks.
    3. None were aware of any specific issues facing the two countries except that problems existed, which they learned from watching television or reading the newspaper.
    The results of this informal mini survey revealed the following:
    1. Greek people have a preconceived mind set about Macedonia and the Macedonian people.
    2. Ordinary Macedonian people are frustrated by Greek interference in Macedonian affairs and are angry for being unable to successfully escape it.
    3. Ordinary individuals outside of the two groups are not well informed about issues facing the two countries. Macedonians, who have the most to gain from this, have not done enough to publicize the issues and bring them out into the open.
    To understand the nature of the current problems between the two countries, I must take you back to the turning points in history, to events that gave birth to the problems.
    I believe the initial turning point began before the creation of the Modern Greek nation with the world’s discovery of the old Greek city-states.
    During the Renaissance period when scholars of the Christian world turned their attention to science, mathematics and philosophy, Muslim scholars from occupied Spain lead them to the discovery of the ancient Greek world. Scholars, fascinated by the discovery, began to translate ancient works and published books that popularized the exploits of the Ancient Greeks making them famous worldwide.
    The next turning point took place in the early 1820’s when Greece rebelled, unsuccessfully, against five hundred years of Ottoman rule but her fame in the world turned the tide in her favour.
    The rebellion prompted a harsh response from Turkey against the Greek people and gained the attention of the world. Cries of sympathy and protests prompted the superpowers France, Britain and Russia to dispatch their navies and liberate Greece. At that time Greece was a small country at the foot of the Balkans, its population was a mix of indigenous Greeks, Albanians, Vlahs, Slavs, Turks and other minorities.
    The unexpected liberation caught the small country by surprise and threw her population into chaos, struggling to assert their individual identities. With help from her allies she recovered and began to rebuild. During this crucial period of soul searching, Greece forged new ideas that would later have negative consequences for Macedonia.
    With allied help, the Greek people formed a new government, crowned a king, revised history, created a literary language, instituted education, created a military and began to plan territorial expansions, all in a span of a few decades. The Ottoman Empire was weakening and there would be plenty of opportunities for acquiring new territories in the future. While the military was planning campaigns, scholars were busy forging a new identity for the Greek people. The new nation would be called Hellas and its people Helene. A well-chosen name and identity that would serve Greece well in the future.
    Forward thinking politicians, revisionists and policy makers made sure nothing was left to chance. They literally designed the new nation to take advantage of the past and to exploit the future. These were also the people who decided Macedonia’s fate for the future.
    By the turn of the century Greece had tripled in size by conquering and annexing all of the territory she occupies today, except for Macedonia. Athens had taken an active role in archeological affairs and instituted censorship. All information and artifacts were regulated to ensure the past was in agreement with the present.
    The next turning point takes us to the last thirty years before the 1912-1913 Balkan wars. It was during this period that Greece took extraordinary measures to conceal the identity and character of the Macedonian nation.
    Greece, due to her ownership of Christian interests inside Macedonia, was granted unrestricted access in and out of Ottoman territory, provided it was for religious purposes only. Since the abolition of the Macedonian Church in 1767 by Sultan Mustafa III of the Ottomans, having no other choice, Macedonians turned to the Greek Church for prayer. Up until the middle of the 19th century the Greek Church had exclusive rights over Christianity inside the Ottoman Empire.
    At that time the Ottoman administration was not yet reformed and functioned very poorly at best. There was no statistical information available regarding the composition of nationalities in the region. When the Ottomans took a census they were only interested in numbers relating to religious affiliation mainly consisting of Muslims and Christians, not nationalities. The lack of proper statistics was opportune for the Greek census takers who quickly took advantage of the situation and cleverly substituted “Greek” for “Christian” in the old Ottoman census.
    Substituting “nationality” for “religion” went unchallenged until the Bulgarian Church became involved in Macedonia. Near the end of the 19th century Bulgaria was granted consecration rights and started its own church. The Ottomans sensed the growing power and influence of the Greek Church in the region and decided it was time to give them some competition. By this time Bulgaria had also staked her claim on Macedonian territory and was headed on a collision course with Greece. Bulgaria also understood the importance of concealing the Macedonian nationality and she too adapted the method of substituting “Bulgarian” for “Christian”.
    Even after the unsuccessful Macedonian (Ilinden) rebellion in 1903 against the Turks, Greece and Bulgaria made no mention of Macedonians.
    Both countries were claiming the same population virtually doubling the numbers overnight. To avoid undo attention and to show proof of claim, both parties initiated campaigns to attract new or convert old parishioners. Macedonians now had a choice of Church, the old conservative Greek Patriarch Church or the new Bulgarian Exarchist Church. Not to be outdone by Greece and Bulgaria, Serbia, (a little later) also joined in and started operating her own churches in Macedonia. As competition intensified the churches offered free education for children and other perks. As competition further intensified, church agents turned to violence, intimidation and murder to keep up their numbers. Hooligans and mercenaries were hired to intimidate, beat and murder people. Priests who left one church for another, paid with their lives. If you wish to know more about the atrocities committed by Greek authorities during this period read about Karavageli’s exploits in Macedonia (Arheio Makedonikou Agona, Pinelopis Delta, Apomnimoneymata, Germanou Karavaggeli, Georgiou Dikonymou Makri, Panagioti Papatzanetea).
    The next turning point takes us to the Balkan conflict of 1912-1913 and Macedonia’s partition.
    Before 1912 her three suitors had one objective in mind, to divide and conquer. In spite of their bickering over the same territory they managed to agree on how to divide it. Then in 1912 (first Balkan War) plans were put into action and they successfully expelled the Ottomans from all of Macedonia’s territory. When it came to dividing it however, greed got in the way and war (the 1913 second Balkan War) broke out between them. Greece allied itself with Serbia and fought against Bulgaria. Things really went out of control when other Balkan Countries became involved, hoping to recover long lost territories. It took super power intervention to stop the conflict but it didn’t help Macedonia. In August 1913, by the Treaty of Bucharest, Macedonia’s partition was sanctioned. Things worsened for Macedonia at the conclusion of World War I on June 28th, 1919 the superpowers at the Paris Peace Conference ratified the 1913 Treaty of Bucharest and with minor territorial adjustments, left Macedonia partitioned to this day. Macedonia was divided for the first time since the Roman wars. New borders were drawn and secured, leaving villages, families, and friends permanently separated.
    As soon as Greece consolidated her control over her share of Macedonia she initiated ethnic cleansing. Macedonians affiliated with the Exarchist Church were expatriated. Serbia exerted no influence in this region, so there were no Serbians to expatriate. After the purges, the population was forced to take an oath of allegiance to the Greek Nation and denounce all others including their own. Those who refused were expatriated.
    More population was expatriated after the war with Turkey (1920’s). Besides purging, Greece also exchanged Muslims for Christians in the population exchanges with Turkey. Most of the newcomers were sent to Macedonia and by way of land re-distribution and reforms, were given the lands and homes belonging to the evicted Macedonians. No Macedonian was ever awarded damages for confiscation of property or loss of possessions. Even Macedonians that fought side by side with the Greeks in Turkey were discriminated against and their services were not recognized. The families of Macedonian soldiers who died in combat received no recognition or compensation for their losses.
    At the conclusion of the war with Turkey (1920’s), Greece initiated new assimilation policies in Macedonia to forcibly Helenize the Macedonian nation. The policies required that every name be changed to have a “Greek sounding” character. Those with Slav names were required to choose or were given new names. All traces of Cyrillic writing found in public buildings, churches, gravestones, etc. were erased. Macedonian toponyms were also changed. Every village, mountain, lake, stream, river and road was given a Greek name. Law prohibited speaking the Macedonian language. A heavy dose of castor oil was punishment for a child caught speaking Macedonian. A hefty fine was punishment for an adult. Those who needed to communicate to do their jobs were in real trouble. For some it was safer not to speak than to risk being fined. Even animals (dogs, oxen, horses, donkeys, etc.) had to be re-educated to obey commands in Greek. Old people who could not afford the fines were sent to court and had to pay by court order, even if they had to sell their meager assets (donkey).
    The next turning point was the Greek civil war. In spite of all attempts by Greece to ethically cleanse, forcibly assimilate, Helenize, and suppress the Macedonian nation, its Macedonian identity remained alive. During the occupation (World War II), free from Greek oppression, Macedonians began to publicly re-assert their identities. They began to talk, sing and publicly perform plays in Macedonian. Some learned to read and write for the first time using the Cyrillic alphabet. The Greek Communist Party having influence in the region took advantage of this. They promised the Macedonian people equal rights and recognition of the Macedonian nationality under the Greek nation. This created a division between those who wanted an independent Macedonia and those who wanted partnership with Greece. Greek military forces pushed out, the Partisans who wanted an independent Macedonia, across the Yugoslav border where they joined the Macedonian brigades there. The rest fought side by side with the Greeks. After the expulsion of Germany and Italy they again fought side by side with the Communist Greeks in the Greek civil war, and lost. No equal rights or recognition of the Macedonian nationality ever materialized. In contrast, the Macedonian contribution for liberating Yugoslavia from the Fascists was rewarded with the creation of the People’s Republic of Macedonia. The Macedonian people earned their place in the world by shedding blood. But Greece is still refusing to recognize them, insisting on calling them Skopians (in the Republic of Macedonia).
    For their bloodshed in liberating Greece from the Fascists, the Macedonian people were rewarded with more ethnic cleansing. During the Greek civil war tens of thousands of refugee children ages four to fourteen were rounded up and evacuated to Eastern Block countries (spring of 1948). Later they were not allowed to return. Greece prepared carefully worded laws to include Greek (by origin) and exclude Macedonian children from returning. Then in the fall of 1949 the general population from Macedonia, mainly for the Lerin and Kostour regions, was evacuated as war refugees. Most of those who left the country were not allowed to come back, not even to visit family, attend funerals or light a candle at the graves of their loved ones. Between 1945 and 1949 the Macedonian demographic was so drastically altered that Macedonians became a minority in their native land.
    Since the conclusion of the Greek Civil war to this day, many Macedonians have immigrated to countries like Canada, Australia and the USA in search of a better life. Their political standing in Greek society, at home and abroad has hardly changed since Macedonia was occupied in 1912. At home, Macedonians still face discrimination and abuse at the hands of Greek Governments.
    If you “feel Macedonian” and attempt to assert your identity, you will encounter discrimination. You may lose your job. Your children may not be good enough to attend higher education. You will not be made an officer in the Greek military.
    So far I have presented evidence of acts perpetrated by successive Greek Governments including ethnic cleansing, forced assimilation and systemic discrimination against the Macedonian people. I have also given examples of how Greek Governments time and time again denied the existence of a Macedonian nationality. I will now attempt to explain how successive Greek Governments committed cultural genocide by manipulating history to deny Macedonians their heritage.
    Earlier in this document I mentioned that after her inception, Greece experienced an identity crisis. Her premature liberation from Turkey and lack of unity in her ethnically diverse population threw her into soul-searching chaos. The problem of ethnicity was not solved by recognizing the existing ethnic diversity of the population and by allowing numbers to determine majorities and minorities. Instead, the Greek nation builders decided to build a new nation, one that would take advantage of the past and lay the foundation for the future.
    The Greek people were told they were the Helene, descendents from the ancient Helene world and rightful heirs to Helene history. At the same time they were told that Greece had many enemies who would try to take their inheritance away from them. Along with pride and fear, xenophobia was instilled into the Greek consciousness. This perhaps explains why Modern Greeks have a mindset and strong feelings not only towards Macedonians but towards Bulgarians and Turks as well.
    Scholar revisionists instrumental in writing the modern version of Greek history made sure it had a hint of Arian in it. To further strengthen her claims of the past, Greece resurrected an old Attican (Athenian) language and used it to create her modern literary language. The language was very difficult to learn and was used mostly by scholars, church and legal institutions. Surprisingly it survived for over a century before it was abandoned in favour of the simpler language people use today.
    Her popularity in the world awarded Greece her liberation as well as shaped her national identity. Her claim to the past was about to shape her future. Before annexing new territories she made sure history would back her claims. With intense propaganda she prepared her people and with vigour she pursued her exploits. After annexing most of the northern territories unabated, she was ready for Macedonia. Unlike before however, her claims to Macedonia did not go unnoticed. As I pointed out earlier, competition for Macedonia grew with intensity that eventually boiled over into full-scale war (wars of 1912 and 1913). To protect her interests, first, from the Macedonian people and second, from her competitors (Bulgaria and Serbia), Greece came up with ingenious defensive methods. To protect her past, she vigorously fought to censor publications of new archeological discoveries and offered her own expert opinions on ancient matters. To protect her future, she frequently published demographic statistics to debunk counter claims to her own claims, always being careful to avoid use of the “M” word for Macedonians. Meanwhile at home, the propaganda machine made sure her population was in line with her policies. Publications without censorship were vigorously protested. Eventually, as many authors and researchers of ancient studies would attest to, the “M” word became a dirty word. It was banned from her vocabulary. The Macedonian territory annexed by Greece was re-named “Northern Greece”.
    Today Greek newspapers (Amfiktyon, Syllogiko Enotiko Organo Symvolis sti diasosy tou Ellinismou, November/December 2001) in their zeal to prove there are no more Macedonians left in Greece, unwittingly have betrayed past acts committed by their Governments against the Macedonian people.
    Archeological discoveries did not escape the Greek censor either. Anything disagreeable quickly disappeared. After more than 1300 years of Slav presence in the region, not a single bit of Slav evidence was reported to be found. There wasn’t any because Greece made sure it disappeared the moment it was discovered. Look at the extreme measures they took during the 1920s and 1930’s to erase all evidence of Macedonian existence. They changed people’s names, toponyms, and banned the Macedonian language altogether.
    What happened to the relics found beneath the shorelines of Lake Prespa (Prespa Island was King Samuil’s fortress)? What happened to the buried treasures and artifacts found from pre 1767 Macedonian churches? They all disappeared. The reason the Ottomans banned the Macedonian Church was because it was a symbol of strength and influence in the old Christian world. The Greek Church instigated the ban by spying and reporting Macedonian activities to the Ottoman Authorities. More recently many old Macedonian churches were razed to the ground and new (Greek) churches were built to cover the ruins. Including the old Church of St. Pantelimon in Lerin.
    What happened to the old Slav gravestones in the village cemeteries? It is estimated that tens of thousands of relics have disappeared in the last century to conceal all evidence that may give credence to a Macedonian presence.
    Look at the works of ancient studies and compare the interpretations of Greek versus non-Greek versions. Why is there such a vast difference? Why is Greece striving so hard to tip the scale in her favour when it comes to ancient history?
    Why do history books refer to the “ Hellenistic civilization” and not the “Macedonian civilization”? What difference does it make anyway? It does to Greece so that she can maintain a firm grip on Macedonia. Was it not the Macedonian Empire that made the conquests and bridged east and west (dispersion)? Was it not the Macedonian Empire that commissioned the building of many cities like Alexandria of Egypt? Was it not the Macedonian Empire that spread knowledge and civilization to the world? Wasn’t it Alexandria and not Athens that became the intellectual capital of the ancient World?
    Doesn’t Macedonia deserve a bit more mention in the history books or a bit more credit for her past deeds?
    So far I have provided arguments to show the extreme measures (cultural genocide) that Greece has taken to safeguard her claims on Macedonia. From misleading her people about their origin, to highjacking ancient history, to concealing artifacts and publishing misleading statistics on nationalities.
    Greece and perhaps others thrive and prosper today at the expense of Macedonia and her people. For over a century now Greece, for fame and fortune, has denied the existence of the Macedonian nation, robbing Macedonians of their future.
    I would like to now conclude by offering alternatives to some of the most popular beliefs about the origins of Greeks and Macedonians and about the purity of the Greek people.
    Who are the Greeks?
    The Greek claim is that they are descendents of an ancient tribe of Helene people that came from the heartland of Europe, traveled through the Balkans and settled by the southern shores of Modern Greece. By observing behavioral patterns, it is more plausible to assume that the ancient inhabitants of the southern Balkan shoreline came from the south, most likely from the Nile River delta regions. Over population, drought or pressures from invasions may have forced them to migrate. Naturally being sea-faring people they settled on the shoreline where for many years they lived off the sea and thrived. They loved the sea and as their populations grew they colonized the Mediterranean coastline.
    It is very difficult for farmers and woodland dwellers, to abandon their way of life, travel long distances and pick up new ways of life so successfully.
    Why Greeks and Helene, why two names?
    I have already said something about the name “Helene” earlier. “Greeks” on the other hand are what the outside world calls the “Helene”. The name “Greko” comes from the Romans and has stayed with the Greeks to this day. I am not sure what the word means but an explanation can be found.
    Are the Modern Helene a pure race that directly descended from the Ancient Helene?
    The answer to the first part of the question is no, they are not a pure race regardless of what they say. The region has been overrun by invaders and conquerors for more than two millenium starting with the Macedonians (over 200 years), the Romans (over 400 years) the Byzantine (1100 years) to the Ottomans (500 years). Whether they are descendents from the Ancient Helene or not, is not known, some may be descendents. DNA testing can however, answer these questions.
    Are the Ancient Greek and Ancient Macedonian people related?
    The Ancient Greeks did not think so. DNA testing can verify this. There is ample evidence to prove linguistically and culturally that the Ancient Greeks and Ancient Macedonians were different people.
    It has been documented in history books (from ancient sources) that the Macedonian elite, in addition to speaking the common language (koine) also spoke another, a uniquely Macedonian language. There are several documented examples of this the most famous being Alexander giving orders to his soldiers.
    Modern Greece has gone to great lengths to conceal all evidence that points to the unique character of the Ancient Macedonians. The world’s admiration of Alexander the Great and his exploits however, let some of the evidence escape.
    What is it with Greece, Bulgaria and the Slavs?
    Before Bulgaria’s independence and her involvement in Balkans affairs, Greece prevented the Macedonian nation from asserting its identity by suppression and concealment. As I mentioned earlier they substituted “Greek” for “Christian” in their nationality statistics. The Greek argument was “if a man is Christian and goes to Greek Church then he is Greek.” This kept other nations from interfering with Greek affairs and prevented them from providing aid to Macedonia.
    The Bulgarians didn’t accept that because they shared linguistic kinship with the Macedonians and they knew the Macedonians had Slav origins like themselves.
    To stop the Bulgarians from making claims to the Ancient Macedonians, Greece took actions to prove that there was no connection between the Ancient Macedonians and the modern Slavs even though they both occupied the same territory. Bulgarian scholars have made claims to the Ancient Macedonians but without much success.
    Is there a connection between Slavs and Modern Macedonians?
    Both Greece and Bulgaria are in agreement that there are no modern Macedonians, only Bulgarians. As mentioned earlier, Greece has made sure to expatriate the right number of Slavs (Macedonians) after annexing Macedonian territory to account for published statistics of Slavs (Bulgarians) in her territory. In other words, Greece has ethnically cleansed the right number of Slavs to be ethnically pure.
    According to media coverage of current events in the Republic of Macedonia the world still thinks Macedonians are Slavs. Take a look at recent newspaper publications and see for yourself.
    What is the connection between Ancient Macedonians and Slavs?
    As I mentioned earlier, to debunk Bulgarian claims that “Slavs living in Macedonia are really Bulgarians because they are Slavs”, Greece set out to convince the world that Slavs are newcomers and cannot lay claim to anything Macedonian. To do this they had to prove several points. First, that indeed the Slavs were newcomers, second, that there was absolutely no relationship between the Slavs and the Ancient Macedonians and third, that the Ancient Greeks and Macedonians were the same people (they are not, see above).
    The debate that the “Slavs are NOT descendents of Ancient Macedonians” is NOT over yet.
    What is the origin of the Slavs?
    There are very few objective unbiased students of the Slavs so first let’s take a look at what the Greeks have to say. The Greeks claim the Slavs originated from the regions near Modern Russia and the Ukraine and migrated southward reaching the Balkans around the sixth and seventh centuries AD. They claim that before settling the land the Slavs killed off the local inhabitants (I assume they mean the Ancient Macedonians) then colonized the vacant terrain. The Greeks also claim that the Slavs brought with them a unique language and culture.
    Most students of the Slavs are in basic agreement with the Greek assessment. More recently however, with the rise of the Republic of Macedonia, scholars and researchers have uncovered new evidence to challenge old claims. The first discoveries came from archeological digs where more than one hundred and fifty monuments have been found with linguistic evidence showing similarities between modern Slav languages and Ancient Macedonian languages. Also there are Macedonian students of Homer that have studied Homer’s books including the Iliad, and have found similarities between the language of the Iliad and the Modern Macedonian language.
    The new discoveries provide enough evidence to question old claims. First they suggest that the Slav language was used in the Balkans before the arrival of the Slavs. Second, the Slav language was used in Macedonia even before Alexander’s time. Third, this may be the elusive language used by Alexander to communicate with his soldiers as history has recorded. Fourth, it suggests that the Slavs originated in Macedonia and may be descendents of the Ancient Macedonians. This point can be verified by DNA testing.
    Now lets put all the evidence together. We are in agreement that Slavs migrated (more recently) in a southerly direction. Modern Slavs occupied territories (at various population densities) from the southern tip of Greece in the Balkans to the depths of Modern Russia. The people of Modern Slav countries spoke dialects of the original Slav language before modernizing their languages.
    If indeed the Slavs originated in Macedonia, how did they get as far north as Russia and why?
    To answer this question we first must acknowledge some agreed upon historical facts;
    1. 2,300 years ago Macedonia was an Empire, the largest empire in the known world.
    2. The Macedonian Empire exerted influence for centuries. There is ample evidence of this in Middle-Eastern kingdoms like the reign of the famous Cleopatra and Ptolemy dynasties in Egypt.
    3. In order for an empire to reign it must control its territories with military influence. So it’s safe to say that during and subsequent to Alexander’s time Macedonians ventured throughout the empire exerting influence and colonizing territories in order to support the needs of the armies and administration.
    4. As history has recorded, when the Macedonian empire broke up there was civil war among its inheritors which forced many Macedonians to flee Macedonia proper.
    Where did these Macedonians go?
    As history has recorded, some fled to Egypt to join their kin under Ptolemay’s rule. It is also possible that some ventured northward and settled in garrison towns among Macedonian colonies. Later, during the Roman invasions, some may have migrated north beyond the influence of the Roman Empire. There, in isolation they worked the lands and grew in numbers undisturbed for centuries until the Mongol invasions. While the rise of the Roman Empire put an end to Macedonian rule in the Balkans and the Middle East, it left fringes of the Macedonian Empire untouched in other parts of the world (like the Hunzakuts in Hunza, Pakistan).
    The Slav invasions of the Balkans caused no great panic with the indigenous population in the Balkans. This may suggest cultural and linguistic similarities between the peoples. The Slav invasion was taking place during the height of the Byzantine Empire and did not prompt a strong and decisive response from the Byzantine authorities. This may suggest that the Slavs were not conquerors as the Greeks suggested, but refugees. This may explain why the indigenous Macedonian population was willing to help them assimilate in Macedonian society.
    There is evidence to strengthen this claim. Macedonian clergy such as Kiril and Methody and later Naum and Clement during the ninth century AD, through the Christian Church, sought to “civilize” the Slavs. They modified and simplified the existing Macedonian (glagolic or verbal) language and created an easy to learn phonetic alphabet to go with it, today known as the Cyrillic alphabet.
    The Bulgarians, who also have claims on Macedonia, agree to a large extent with Greek accounts regarding Slav history. If indeed Slavs originated in Macedonia as I have suggested, then all Bulgarian claims on Macedonia can be debunked. Furthermore this may also suggest that the Slav population in Bulgaria descended from Macedonia. This is a good enough reason for Bulgarians to keep quiet.
    Before I leave you, I would like to point out that Greek policies towards Macedonians do not stop at the Greek borders. Many Macedonians left Greece to escape the torment but didn’t. The venomous Greek propaganda that has spewed for two centuries is not confined only to her borders. Greek consulates and embassies work hard promoting Greek propaganda by giving away thousands of free books, newspapers and magazines and support many lobby groups to influence organizations and Governments world wide. Their influence is not limited to propaganda alone. The consulates and embassies are also hard at work keeping tabs on the activities of organizations and people, ever their own people. Greek authorities quickly react to perceived threats by any means possible, even with violence if necessary. Committing acts of protest from objecting to new book publications to imposing embargoes on new countries. Many Macedonians who came from Greece and are now living in Toronto are afraid of participating in Macedonian events. They will not attend Macedonian festivals, parades, picnics, dances or even attend Mass at Macedonian Churches for fear of being reported to the Greek authorities.
    I hope I have provided you with enough convincing evidence to first, help you understand the plight of the Macedonian nation and why Macedonians must fight to survive. Second, to show you that giving up the fight with Greece is like committing suicide because Greece will protect her interests at any cost, even our extinction.
    I hope I have inspired you to pick up the torch and carry it for Macedonia’s sake.

    Contact me at, if you want a copy of this document, praise, complain, criticize, or provide me with new evidence on the subjects discussed.

  2. Throughout history Macedonian people have suffered a continuous genocide. I will list just a couple of cases: After Alexander's conquest, Macedonia was led into two wars with Rome, and helped by the Greek policy, in 146 BC, Rome won and divided the land in four parts (Macedonia I, II, III, and IV). This division has prevailed throughout the ages and Macedonia is still divided in four parts (Pirin, Aegean, Vardar and Pustec). Cicero, a Roman historian has recorded 10 000 of carts brought to Rome from Macedonia with goods and people (most of which were men aged 15 and over), sold as slaves throughout Rome. The population of Ancient Macedonia was reduced to a tenth (mostly those who lived in the mountainous regions away from the Roman Influence). However, the biggest genocide over Macedonian people was carried out only recently. After the 500 years of Ottoman rule, when the nationalism started spreading in the Balkans, the Serbian, Bulgarian and Greek agendas took interest in the Macedonian heritage (primarily territorial). This gradually led to the Balkan Wars. The Second Balkan War records unforgettable tortures, rapes, terror and suffering of the Macedonian people, caused by either the Serbian, Bulgarian or Greek armies. The case was such that all parties were recruiting people from Macedonia, forcing them to fight against each other in a fratricidal war. Those who deserted the armies suffered unspeakable tortures and their families were exposed to an inhumane genocide, while the neighboring policies were trying to convince the world that there were no Macedonians living here (we were acclaimed to be either Serbian or Bulgarian or Greek). There are still parties that are vigorously fighting to assimilate the Macedonian ethnic communities in Bulgaria, Greece and Albania, as has been the case with Serbia lately. Ironically, both Bulgaria and Greece are EU countries and have signed and ratified all the conventions regarding Minority Rights. Positions:
    1.OMO Ilinden must be recognized as a party in Bulgaria (not an NGO), since Bulgaria has become a EU country.
    2.The Goveernement of Greece must acknowledge the ancient Macedonian heritage to the modern Macedonians. The Macedonian nation has the right to celebrate its own history, that we have been brutally detached from... The historical truth must come out.
    3.The Serbian Orthodox Church must recognize the Autonomy of the Macedonian Orthodox Church. The Ohrid Archiepiscopy is much older than the Serbian Orthodox Church and was forcefully eradicated in 1767 by the Greek Orthodox Church.
    4.The Albanian government must provide proper education for the Macedonian community in Albania, and allow greater political representation in the state institutions.
    5. The Macedonians must realize their true ethno-genetic background in order to revive and preserve the cultural heritage of their ancestors.

  3. Rosetta Stone
    Posted to RECOGNIZE THE MACEDONIAN TRUTH September 08 3:51pm

    The research work of the two scientists Tentov and Bosheski brought forth an interesting issue. Apparently, they managed to decode the middle text from the Rosetta Stone (commonly treated as demotic), using the same approach that the French used to decode the Egyptian hieroglyphs from the first text. The French used Coptic to decode the language of the Pharaohs, as the closest link to the ancient Egyptians, and our scientists used Macedonian as the closest logical link to the language of the living masters of that time. We know that the Pharaoh that erected the stone was Ptolemy V. Why shouldn't he write a decree in his own language? The fact that the two scientists could determine not only the script, but the phonetics as well, and match it to the modern Macedonian language, shows that the ancient Macedonians, were not illiterate barbarians, but a nation with its own language and script that was in use further, besides the fierce attempt of the Roman policy to erase everything that was of Macedonian glory and thus overate it. Apparently, the Romans were proud conquerers that believed that the world started with them. It is widely known of the ravaging they did over Macedonian population and wealth, scattering it throughout the empire (both people and goods). They were systematically eradicating all signs of Alexander's empire, while ironically following his steps, thus hoping to proclaim themselves as rightful heirs of the Macedonian empire.

    The fact that the language was almost the same in those times, as it is today, points out that maybe what we know as Slavic in the middle ages is actually the language of the tribes of ancient Macedon. Maybe the migration of the Slavic tribes never took place. They might have never come from behind the Carpathian mountains. They might have migrated from the Balkans to the steppes. This is what archeology points at. The founding of Sindidun (Belgrade today), emerges after the peace agreed between the Celts and the Macedonians in the 4th century BC. (Read the Druid of Sindidun, Vladislav Bajac)

    This may go even further: Russian royalty takes its roots from Alexander the Great. (via the Byzantine Order of the Holy Tomb)

    Or: The Byzantine empire was the true heir of the Alexander's Empire. Not the West Roman! Thanks to Czar Constantine and Elena his mother who was from Nicea (Nish today).

    Or: The language that we call Greek today is actually the Esperanto of the ancient world, created by linguists on the basis of 40 languages using the Greek script. It is very different from the earlier Ionic and Doric dialects. This Esperanto in those times was called "Alexandrian" because this city was the center of the Empire. So, the Greek from the Bible is actually this Alexandrian, and the Greek from Byzantium was also an upgraded form of the Alexandrian dialect. The final upgrading of this form of language was done in the 18th and 19th centuries and we have its modern form known as Greek today.

    Or: Cyril and Methodius never invented a knew script! They revised the ancient morphemic symbols and upgraded the writing system of the ancient Macedonians. The Glagollic script was political, while the Cyrillic a true revision of the ancient letters. That is why the glagollic was so easily replaced by the new cyrillic.

    There are many approaches that need revision.

    I hope the world will take notice.

  4. This interviews were made some 20-30years ago long before the Macedonia Greece name dispute.The distinction between Macedonians and Greeks, their political system, mentality and culture are clearly displayed hear.Because Macedonia didn't had an independent state in these times the GREEK and foreign historians denyed the modern existence of the Macedonians and regard them as an extinct nation SEPARATE and DIFFERENT from the ancient Greeks.

    We would like to thank the Greek government at that time, Greece archaeological site director and team leaders,Greece national museums,and their English friends for making this film possible

    I dedicate this to my exiled family my suffered nation and my divided country.Macedonia to the Macedonians.


    Baba Lena is my best friend’s grandma and she is a living witness to the most recent acts of ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide against the Macedonian people, which happened in Greece (Aegean Macedonia) between 1946-1949.

    Baba Lena is a woman of a lovely personality, and a modest smile, and she loves to sing traditional Macedonian songs. Despite her turbulent life, in which she lost many members of her family, she spent five years away from her baby daughter, lost her husband, and reunited again, and moved from country to country, in instability and fear, arriving in Tetovo, Macedonia, where she lives now, never to go back to her village again, she still loves to talk about it a lot, the games she played as a child in the village, the smell of the fields in summer. She has a vivid memory of the events from that time, and she loves to talk about it so much that it would be ungrateful not to record any of it. Sometimes we sit together, sing songs (she has a beautiful voice, just like Toshe, maybe because she was born on the same date as him), and talk about those dreadful times, when, as she puts it, Hell was on Earth.

    She was born in the village of Strkovo (Plati in Greek), on the 25 January 1923, in what is today Greece, Aegean Macedonia. Her father’s name was Trajko (Evstratios in Greek), and her mother’s name was Tronda (Triendaphilia in Greek). She doesn’t fully remember when they introduced the Greek names, since she was very young. It must have been somewhere between 1926-1928. She surely knows that her grandparents could speak no Greek whatsoever; they spoke Macedonian only, as Baba Lena witnesses. Her father, besides Macedonian spoke Greek too, and her mom didn’t know the foreign language. However, at school they learned in Greek, and spoke Greek in public with others, but when with friends and family they spoke Macedonian as well. It wasn’t easy for the children, Baba Lena remembers, because it was a foreign language for them as well as their parents.

    They could have forgotten the mother tongue and learned the Greek language easily, but there was a problem: the Macedonian traditional songs, they were so beautiful! And she loved to sing them in her mother tongue!

    She finished the sixth grade in primary school in 1935, and wanted to be educated in Lerin (Florina in Greek), but her family needed her in the fields, so they let only her older brother be the “learned” one, the rest were needed at the field. She recalls once, she felt so tired of working in the field that she decided to hide in the woods and sleep a while. Her family had been looking for her everywhere but they couldn’t find her. They must have freaked out! When she arrived at home that evening she got the cane so much that she has remembered it all her life. And she was never hiding again.

    In 1939, when she was only 16, she remembers the army came and mobilized the men from her village. It was a Greek army. There were rumors that, Italians might land in Albania and hit on the Greek border. On 28 October 1940 the event finally happened, and Italy occupied Albania and attacked Greece along the border, which was very close to Baba Lena’s village. It was a Monday, she recalls!

    So the Great War had begun! Baba Lena was in her teens. The next spring, on 15 April 1941 she heard from someone in the village, that the German Army was approaching the Prespa area, coming from Bulgaria. Greece had capitulated! Greece redrew from Albanian border. Italians came to Prespa! She remembers there were solders living in their house as well. Who knows how that felt for a teenage girl at the time! Her chastity might have been at stake!

    She married Grandpa Leko (Alexandros in Greek) in 1943 on 21 November. In the spring of 1944 the Germans came to the village, they went from house to house and didn’t do much harm to anyone. In 1945, she says, there was silence!

    Previously in 1936, the Greek dictator Metaxa was elected president of Greece, and Baba Lena remembers that Macedonian language was totally ruled out of use. Until then they could speak, now and then, a bit of their mother tongue, but since this moment in history they were forbidden to use Macedonian at all. If caught they were taken to court and prosecuted, and imprisoned and beaten, sometimes to death. Just because of using their mother tongue! Outrageous!!!

    Many have suffered from spies and people who would frame the humble Macedonian villagers by alleging them to have spoken Macedonian. There were people sitting at the water springs in the centre of the village, recalls Baba Lena, watching over the villagers, who would come to fill water for their households, and eliciting them to say even a word in their own language. This was very common since our villagers were not educated, and could not speak Greek perfectly, so they would say a word in Macedonian sometimes, which was fatal to them! They would be taken to the court, prosecuted, imprisoned, beaten to death!

    How barbaric!!! How inhumane!!! The cradle of modern democracy has its foundations in cruel dictatorship and genocide! And this policy has prevailed throughout the democratic times of Greece, and even now in its European epoch, Greece does not do anything to soothe this shameful past; moreover, Greece is even fiercer in fighting against the Macedonian cause, and even more enthusiastic in telling the world lies about the Macedonians. They have long proclaimed us non-existent! I couldn’t disagree more having a living witness to the shameful deeds Greece had done, sitting here next to me, talking to me face to face! You know, those wrinkles on her face, tell the story on its own. Yet, Baba Lena amazes me with her spirit, and her caring smile, which haven’t faded at all throughout the years and the troubles she had. I am so grateful to have met her!

    The world should reexamine its values, or at least the source of them!

    Greece is a country of shadows since there are many spirits, which cannot rest in peace until the whole truth comes out!

    Besides the dictator’s military forces there were bandits, raiding the poor villages, taking away food, clothes, cattle, harassing the population. Life was already becoming hell for Baba Lena, and the worst was yet to come.

    Things changed to better a bit in 1947. There was no school in that year. They removed all the old Greek teachers. The socialists had taken over, and there was a partisan movement spreading among the people. They started an Assembly, and in the village of German, they started a course in basic Macedonian. Baba Lena says they were just teaching the alphabet with poor literature, and it was going on for a couple of months only. It was their first school in Macedonian, at least since she was born. The times were so turbulent that she couldn’t have been happy about this, since her husband had to go with the partisans, and fight for the liberation of Macedonia and Greece from the dictatorship. It was 12 May 1947, in the small hours, he left with the partisans. He had to, because he was seen helping a wounded partisan earlier that spring, so if he didn’t leave, the Greek army would have arrested him and killed him in prison. That’s what they did! Once, he was beaten - Baba Lena recalls - whipped with a belt, and brought home covered in blood. She cried a lot!

    After her husband left with the partisans, the fields were empty, says Baba Lena. We worked together in all the fields. It must have been very sad in those unstable times for her and her family. She had a baby daughter with her husband, that they called Ljuba (the loved one). It must have been very tough to go through all of that at young age with a child, and without a husband beside.

    In June 1947 the partisans liberated Prespa from the Greek occupation armies. There was not a single Greek official that remained. Their land had been liberated. For a short while! Then the planes started bombarding the villages in the area, every day, for a year or so, says Baba Lena. The planes were Greek, and Baba Lena remembers that the partisans were talking that the planes and bombs were given to Greece by England. England helped - a LOT - the Greek dictatorship!?! I wonder why!? Well, if the Alliance had allowed Greece to be taken over by the socialists, it would have been a great loss for the Alliance’s force deployment at the Mediterranean. The Alliance sacrificed the Macedonian cause and people, to the greater benefit of the Great ones! Greece was lucky to be on their side! It was a battle of great powers! We were too small to be cared of!

    I wonder if there is justice in this world to at least acknowledge this outrageous act of historical and political “necessity”, which destroyed and completely disrupted the lives of many innocent Macedonians from the Aegean part of Macedonia.

    The bombardment continued every day. The hills were burning, houses were destroyed, people killed. It was very risky to keep the children in the villages, so the partisan committee decided to send the children as refugees in other countries. The women were digging trenches and the men were fighting defensive battles.

    On 3 April 1948 they decided to take away the children. They took young Ljuba, Baba Lena’s firstborn. It must have been heartbreaking for both of them, as well as many other mothers! They could not have known where they would take them, and if they would live at all!!! They heard that they took the children in Resen, on Yugoslavian side. They placed them in a village called Ljubojno. They suffered from hunger then, Baba Lena recalls. The children were hungry, the parents under a siege! What a trap!!!

    They heard that the children were taken to Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and her Ljuba was taken to Hungary. The men were drafted in the partisan movement. In 1948 the women were also drafted and the villages remained empty with only a few elders who could not fight. They were knitting socks for the partisans, or providing some food that remained in the storehouses. The villages became a waste land!!!

    Baba Lena became a partisan. She was given the role of a medic, assisting with the transportation of the wounded. She was stationed in Kalugjerica, then in Preol (Prespa), then in Vikjoa Planina, Gamos (Epir), Lundzer, providing for the bunkers, the ambulances.

    On 18 June 1949, they read in the newspaper that Tito had turned his back on them. The way out to Yugoslavia was closed. What a disappointment! Since this moment they had to take their wounded not to Macedonia in Yugoslavia, but to Albania instead.

    Baba Lena had gone through some battles, such as: 29 December 1948 in Crnoishte, 12 February 1949 they attacked on Lerin (Florina in Greek), and on 17 April 1949 they liberated the village of Sorovich (Amindeo in Greek). When she was in Lundzer, they were throwing barrels filled with petrol on them. The hills were on fire. It was burning like in hell, Baba Lena recalls. Many had died. The Greek army was bombarding the area all the time. On 10 August 1949 the Greek army started the total cleansing by bombarding the villages and the area non-stop for three days. Baba Lena says that it had been a dreadful sight to look upon. Hills burning, houses devastated, bodies scattered, people covered in dirt and blood, wounded crying… During the day there were bombs, and at night the planes dropped nails to sabotage the movement of vehicles, if any.

    On 13 August that year, Baba Lena, together with those who survived, was given orders to redraw from the village of Smrdez, over the village of V’mbel (Moskohori in Greek) to the Albanian border. They had been walking down the slopes of a very rocky mountain, all night in pitch dark, when Baba Lena tumbled down the hill and woke up with her foot twisted backwards. Her bones broken, her leg swelling, with a battle going on downhill! There was fire all through the night, gunshots, detonations, trees burning… Her partisan friends didn’t leave her, risking their lives alongside hers. Three of them, her heroes that she would never forget and will always be grateful to for saving her life, Petkana Nechovska (now in Tetovo – her best friend), Filip Miovski (who now lives in Gostivar), and Vangelija Noachoska (who lived in Australia). These three young people, took her on their hands, swapping turns every now and then, moving through the frontline, on a rocky mountain, to bring her to a save shelter. What a heroic deed! – She claims through tears. In truth!

    They left her in a place with lots of wounded freedom-fighters. She was crying all night long. And the next day! The shooting would not stop. She didn’t know anyone there. She was terrified! There was a Greek partisan who, when she heard his voice and called his name, took her on a horse to a deserted but quiet place in the middle of nowhere. He told her that he would go back to find his company and return for her as soon as the battle calmed down. She was so happy to have heard his voice in that hell, but now, stranded in the middle of nowhere, she was even more scared. What if he wouldn’t return? What if he was killed? She didn’t know where she was? She could see fire burning alongside the border with Albania. She spent the night alone, in the middle of nowhere, looking at her home place burning in fire, with a broken and swollen leg, and a devastated life. She was crying for eternity.

    Luckily, the Greek partisan Taki, came with some food and with a prisoner. He took her on a horse and went to Albania. They came across some people. They went to Korcha and spent three days in the meadows, as refugees. They were lucky it was summer. Sleeping under the bare sky! After three days a truck came by to pick up the wounded. Baba Lena left with the truck. She was put in a hospital for 7 days. And her foot was well taken care of, even though she still has a remnant of the time. After this she was taken to Elbasan in Albania, where she stayed until November 1949. They told her to get ready because they would leave. Where? She didn’t know! She was just taken like a bag, from a place to a place, alone, helpless. She had become very introvert at that time, she recalls. She wouldn’t talk to anyone; she would just stay alone and cry!

    They took her to Drach (Durres) on a ship, she didn’t know where they would go. She was going to explode, she says. Should she go or not?!? To be or not to be? The committee was telling orders, she was a village woman left on her own among strangers, without her family, lost, devastated, and now taken to a foreign country she didn’t know where. Are you familiar with the feeling? Not quite, I guess!

    She was merely 28 years old at that time. They arrived to a place called 250 by the partisans. There were more than 2000 wounded. There were burnt planes too. They were treated for the whole winter, food and basic care.

    In February 1950 they took her to Mengjagugje in Poland. When she heard that they were taking her to Poland she was happy, because she had heard that some of her family were there, so they might reunite. She had to go on a ship across the Gibraltar, illegally in the storage space, as a cargo. She recalls that some of the girls were given dresses to put on and act as the crew’s spouses, in front of the Border Control. They arrived in Poland and stayed in a small place in the mountains, for a short time. Then some people came and took her to Zgozelec, in Poland. She stayed there for some months. She took up a job in the orphanage. She reunited with her sister there, and she vividly recalls her first talk on a telephone with her sister. She was crying, they were crying, kissing, hugging each other, thanking God for the reunion. Her sister died later that year in Poland. She lost her again!

    Baba Lena was devastated then, even though she doesn’t show it now! They were dislocated again with all the children she was looking after to a place called Politze, in Poland. She stayed with the kids there! She hadn’t seen her daughter for 5 years. She was desperate! Then she was sent to a spa, and she received a false letter there, that her husband was in Zgozelec. She went there. It was a false call.

    Then in 1952, Zaharyadi came, who was the president of the Greek-Macedonian liberation movement. He talked to her and asked her where her husband was. She told him that she knew he was with the healthy army. She didn’t know where. He advised her how to find her husband and reunite with the child again.

    On 31 March 1952, the day when a partisan hero was hanged by the Greeks - Baba Lena couldn’t remember his name; she took her journey from Poland to Russia on a ship again. She traveled for 9 days, and arrived on a train in Russia on the 8 April 1952. Luckily she had her little Ljuba back, and now they had to find grandpa Leko. He was taken to the military school to SSSR, in Tashkent, today’s Uzbekistan. She didn’t know that at the time.

    When they arrived in Tashkent, there were couples reuniting, men and women found each other again, joy and happiness… Baba Lena’s face was veiled in sadness once again - her husband was not there. She was not on the list! She arrived three days earlier, which she didn’t know at the time, and grandpa Leko didn’t know she was there waiting for him. She was put in a dirty room with only a blanket, to freeze through the night with her daughter in her arms, alone, stranded, devastated… For three days she mourned over her poor life, and prayed for the life of her daughter.

    Eventually, grandpa Leko came and took them to his place. He was wearing a uniform and he was very handsome, Baba Lena recalls. They were the happiest living creatures at that time on the whole of this world. Can you imagine the light in Baba Lena’s heart, when she was cooking the first dinner to her family after all that time and suffering they all went through?

    They lived in Tashkent from 1952 to 1971 and then they heard that the Socialistic Republic of Macedonia, through Yugoslavia, was offering the Macedonian refugees from the Greek civil war 1946-1949, housing and employment in some of the cities, among which Tetovo. They were selected for Tetovo. Another big change in her life! This time for better they hoped.

    And it was better then all the turmoil that she had been through in her life, she was finally among her own family. Even though she never recovered from her loss of the homeland, the family and friends she had there. She still loves to talk mostly about her childhood, sing songs from that time, because it was the only time of innocence that her life had offered to her, as far as she could remember.

    When the 2001 war in Macedonia threatened to revive the scenario of her youth in Tetovo as well, she was scared she would lose this home as well. Some of the Macedonian population was fiercely forced to leave Tetovo, because of constant threats by someone from the Albanian neighborhoods.

    She is now still not sure of what life can bring, and since Toshe Proeski’s death, she believes it is our people’s destiny to suffer for the good of all.

    We are the Sunshine of this World that is why we have it in our Hearts, she says.

    So, mote it be!

  6. Petro all the above consern the ideology of the Macedonism.They show us how deep is the influence of this ultra-nationalist ideology in FYROM.We shall examine the issues involved under three main headings, which put in a
    nutshell our neighbouring country’s political and ideological principles over the years:

    1) Renaming Greek Macedonia ‘Aegean Macedonia’, and representing it as terra irredenta, as an integral part of FYROM.

    2) Claiming the existence of an oppressed ‘Macedonian minority’ within Greece.

    3) Appropriating emblems and symbols, and the Greek cultural legacy in general (with Ancient Macedonia as the focal point).

    Of course all the above consern the impact of the Macedonism to the Greek site.Except of course the Rosetta Stone that impact the Egyptian History. More for this issue in


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